Black people is a skin group-based classification used for specific people with a mid to dark brown complexion. Not all black people have dark skin; however, in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification in the Western World, the term black is used to describe persons who are perceived as dark-skinned compared to other populations. It is mostly used for the people of Sub-Saharan African descent and the indigenous peoples of Oceania, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent.
Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified "black", and these social constructs have changed over time. In a number of countries, societal variables affect classification as much as skin color, and the social criteria for "blackness" vary. In the United Kingdom, "black" was historically equivalent with "person of color", a general term for non-European peoples. In other regions such as Australasia, settlers applied the term "black" or it was used by local populations with different histories and ancestral backgrounds.
For many other individuals, communities and countries, "black" is also perceived as a derogatory, outdated, reductive or otherwise unrepresentative label, and as a result is neither used nor defined in African cultures that have dealt with little-to-no colonial history. Some have pointed out that labeling people groups "black" is erroneous as the people described as "black" have a brown skin color.
- 1 Africa
- 2 Asia
- 3 Europe
- 4 Oceania
- 5 North America
- 6 South America
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
The Romans interacted with and later conquered parts of Mauretania, an early state that covered modern Morocco, western Algeria, and the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla during classical period. The people of the region were noted in classical literature as Mauri, which was subsequently rendered as Moors in English.
Numerous communities of dark-skinned peoples are present in North Africa, some dating from prehistoric communities. Others descend from immigrants via the historical trans-Saharan trade or, after the Arab invasions of North Africa in the 7th century, from slaves from the Arab slave trade in North Africa.
According to Carlos Moore, resident scholar at Brazil's University of the State of Bahia, in the 21st century Afro-multiracials in the Arab world, including Arabs in North Africa, self-identify in ways that resemble multi-racials in Latin America. He claims that darker toned Arabs, much like darker toned Latin Americans, consider themselves white because they have some distant white ancestry.
Egyptian President Anwar Sadat had a mother who was a dark-skinned Nubian Sudanese (Sudanese Arab) woman and a father who was a lighter-skinned Egyptian. In response to an advertisement for an acting position, as a young man he said, "I am not white but I am not exactly black either. My blackness is tending to reddish".
Due to the patriarchal nature of Arab society, Arab men, including during the slave trade in North Africa, enslaved more African women than men. They used more enslaved African female in domestic service and agriculture than males. The men interpreted the Quran to permit sexual relations between a male master and his enslaved females outside of marriage (see Ma malakat aymanukum and sex), leading to many mixed-race children. When an enslaved woman became pregnant with her Arab master's child, she was considered as umm walad or "mother of a child", a status that granted her privileged rights. The child was given rights of inheritance to the father's property, so mixed-race children could share in any wealth of the father. Because the society was patrilineal, the children took their fathers' social status at birth and were born free.
Some succeeded their fathers as rulers, such as Sultan Ahmad al-Mansur, who ruled Morocco from 1578 to 1608. He was not technically considered as a mixed-race child of a slave; his mother was Fulani and a concubine of his father.
In early 1991, non-Arabs of the Zaghawa people of Sudan attested that they were victims of an intensifying Arab apartheid campaign, segregating Arabs and non-Arabs (specifically, people of Nilotic ancestry). Sudanese Arabs, who controlled the government, were widely referred to as practicing apartheid against Sudan's non-Arab citizens. The government was accused of "deftly manipulat(ing) Arab solidarity" to carry out policies of apartheid and ethnic cleansing.
American University economist George Ayittey accused the Arab government of Sudan of practicing acts of racism against black citizens. According to Ayittey, "In Sudan... the Arabs monopolized power and excluded blacks – Arab apartheid." Many African commentators joined Ayittey in accusing Sudan of practising Arab apartheid.
In the Sahara, the native Tuareg Berber populations kept "negro" slaves. Most of these captives were of Nilotic extraction, and were either purchased by the Tuareg nobles from slave markets in the Western Sudan or taken during raids. Their origin is denoted via the Ahaggar Berber word Ibenheren (sing. Ébenher), which alludes to slaves that only speak a Nilo-Saharan language. These slaves were also sometimes known by the borrowed Songhay term Bella.
Similarly, the Sahrawi indigenous peoples of the Western Sahara observed a class system consisting of high castes and low castes. Outside of these traditional tribal boundaries were "Negro" slaves, who were drawn from the surrounding areas.
Horn of Africa
In parts of the Horn of Africa, the local Afroasiatic speaking populations have long adhered to a construct similar to that of the Sahara, Nile and Maghreb. In Ethiopia and Somalia, the slave classes mainly consisted of individuals of Nilotic and Bantu origin who were collectively known as Shanqella and Adone (both denoting "negro"). These captives and others of analogous morphology were distinguished as tsalim barya (dark-skinned slave) in contrast with the Afroasiatic-speaking nobles or saba qayh ("red men") or light-skinned people. The earliest representation of this tradition dates from a seventh or eighth century BC inscription belonging to the Kingdom of Damat.
In South Africa, the period of colonization resulted in many unions and marriages between European men and Bantu and Khoisan women from various tribes, resulting in mixed-race children. As the European settlers acquired control of territory, they generally pushed the mixed-race and Bantu and Khoisan populations into second-class status. During the first half of the 20th century, the Afrikaaner-dominated government classified the population according to four main racial groups: Black, White, Asian (mostly Indian), and Coloured. The Coloured group included people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay ancestry, especially in the Western Cape). The Coloured definition occupied an intermediary political position between the Black and White definitions in South Africa. It imposed a system of legal racial segregation, a complex of laws known as apartheid.
The apartheid bureaucracy devised complex (and often arbitrary) criteria in the Population Registration Act of 1945 to determine who belonged in which group. Minor officials administered tests to enforce the classifications. When it was unclear from a person's physical appearance whether the individual should be considered Coloured or Black, the "pencil test" was used. A pencil was inserted into a person's hair to determine if the hair was kinky enough to hold the pencil, rather than having it pass through, as it would with smoother hair. If so, the person was classified as Black. Such classifications sometimes divided families.
Sandra Laing is a South African woman who was classified as Coloured by authorities during the apartheid era, due to her skin colour and hair texture, although her parents could prove at least three generations of European ancestors. At age 10, she was expelled from her all-white school. The officials' decisions based on her anomalous appearance disrupted her family and adult life. She was the subject of the 2008 biographical dramatic film Skin, which won numerous awards. During the apartheid era, those classed as "Coloured" were oppressed and discriminated against. But, they had limited rights and overall had slightly better socioeconomic conditions than those classed as "Black". The government required that Blacks and Coloureds live in areas separate from Whites, creating large townships located away from the cities as areas for Blacks.
In the post-apartheid era, the Constitution of South Africa has declared the country to be a "Non-racial democracy". In an effort to redress past injustices, the ANC government has introduced laws in support of affirmative action policies for Blacks; under these they define "Black" people to include "Africans", "Coloureds" and "Asians". Some affirmative action policies favor "Africans" over "Coloureds" in terms of qualifying for certain benefits. Some South Africans categorized as "African Black" say that "Coloureds" did not suffer as much as they did during apartheid. "Coloured" South Africans are known to discuss their dilemma by saying, "we were not white enough under apartheid, and we are not black enough under the ANC (African National Congress)".
In 2008, the High Court in South Africa ruled that Chinese South Africans who were residents during the apartheid era (and their descendants) are to be reclassified as "Black people," solely for the purposes of accessing affirmative action benefits, because they were also "disadvantaged" by racial discrimination. Chinese people who arrived in the country after the end of apartheid do not qualify for such benefits.
Other than by appearance, "Coloureds" can usually be distinguished from "Blacks" by language. Most speak Afrikaans or English as a first language, as opposed to Bantu languages such as Zulu or Xhosa. They also tend to have more European-sounding names than Bantu names.
"Afro-Asians" or "African-Asians" (also known as "Black Asians" or "Blasian"), are persons of mixed African and Asian ancestry. Historically, Afro-Asian populations have been marginalized as a result of human migration and social conflict. The term "Black Asian" may also be used to describe Negritos (blacks indigenous to Asia); therefore "Afro-Asian" is a more scientifically proper term to describe Black Asians with direct African background or ancestry.
Historians estimate that between the advent of Islam in 650 CE and the abolition of slavery in the Arabian Peninsula in the mid-20th century, 10 to 18 million Black Africans (known as the Zanj) were enslaved by Arab slave traders and transported to the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries. This number far exceeded the number of slaves who were taken to the Americas. Several factors affected the visibility of descendants of this diaspora in 21st-century Arab societies: The traders shipped more female slaves than males, as there was a demand for them to serve as concubines in harems in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries. Male slaves were castrated in order to serve as harem guards. The death toll of Black African slaves from forced labor was high. The mixed-race children of female slaves and Arab owners were assimilated into the Arab owners' families under the patrilineal kinship system. As a result, few distinctive Afro-Arab communities have survived in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries.
Distinctive and self-identified black communities have been reported in countries such as Iraq, with a reported 1.2 million black people, and they attest to a history of discrimination. These descendants of the Zanj have sought minority status from the government, which would reserve some seats in Parliament for representatives of their population. According to Alamin M. Mazrui et al., generally in the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries, most of these communities identify as both black and Arab.
Afro-Iranians are people of black African ancestry residing in Iran. During the Qajar dynasty, many wealthy households imported black African women and children as slaves to perform domestic work. This slave labor was drawn exclusively from the Zanj, who were Bantu-speaking peoples that lived along the African Great Lakes, in an area roughly comprising modern-day Tanzania, Mozambique and Malawi.
About 150,000 East African and black people live in Israel, amounting to just over 2% of the nation's population. The vast majority of these, some 120,000, are Beta Israel, most of whom are recent immigrants who came during the 1980s and 1990s from Ethiopia. In addition, Israel is home to over 5,000 members of the African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem movement that are ancestry of African Americans who emigrated to Israel in the 20th century, and who reside mainly in a distinct neighborhood in the Negev town of Dimona. Unknown numbers of black converts to Judaism reside in Israel, most of them converts from the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States.
Additionally, there are around 60,000 non-Jewish African immigrants in Israel, some of whom have sought asylum. Most of the migrants are from communities in Sudan and Eritrea, particularly the Niger-Congo-speaking Nuba groups of the southern Nuba Mountains; some are illegal immigrants.
Beginning several centuries ago, during the period of the Ottoman Empire, tens of thousands of Zanj captives were brought by slave traders to plantations and agricultural areas situated between Antalya and Istanbul in present-day Turkey. Some of their ancestry remained in situ, and many migrated to larger cities and towns. Other black slaves were transported to Crete, from where they or their descendants later reached the İzmir area through the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923, or indirectly from Ayvalık in pursuit of work.
The Siddi are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan whose members are descendants from the Bantu peoples. In the Makran strip of the Sindh and Balochistan provinces in southwestern Pakistan, these Bantu descendants are known as the Makrani. There was a brief "Black Power" movement in Sindh in the 1960s and many Siddi are proud of and celebrate their African ancestry.
Negritos are believed to have been the first inhabitants of Southeast Asia. Once inhabiting Taiwan, Vietnam, and various other parts of Asia, they are now confined primarily to Thailand, the Malay Archipelago, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Negrito means "little black people" in Spanish (negrito is the Spanish diminutive of negro, i.e., "little black person"); it is what the Spaniards called the aborigines that they encountered in the Philippines. The term Negrito itself has come under criticism in countries like Malaysia, where it is now interchangeable with the more acceptable Semang, although this term actually refers to a specific group.
Negritos in the Philippines, and Southeast Asia in general, face lots of discrimination. Usually, they are marginalized and live in poverty, unable to find employment that will take them.
As of 2013, there were approximately 800,000 Afro-Germans (not including those of mixed ethnicity). This number is difficult to estimate because the German census does not use race as a category.
Afro-Dutch are residents of the Netherlands who are of Black African or Afro-Caribbean ancestry. They tend to be from the former and present Dutch overseas territories of Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Suriname. The Netherlands also has sizable Cape Verdean and other African communities.
The term "Moors" has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims, especially those of Arab or Berber ancestry, whether living in North Africa or Iberia. Moors were not a distinct or self-defined people. Medieval and early modern Europeans applied the name to Muslim Arabs, Berbers, Black Africans and Europeans alike.
Isidore of Seville, writing in the 7th century, claimed that the Latin word Maurus was derived from the Greek mauron, μαύρον, which is the Greek word for black. Indeed, by the time Isidore of Seville came to write his Etymologies, the word Maurus or "Moor" had become an adjective in Latin, "for the Greeks call black, mauron". "In Isidore's day, Moors were black by definition..."
Afro-Spaniards are Spanish nationals of West/Central African ancestry. They today mainly come from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Gambia, Mali, Nigeria and Senegal. Additionally, many Afro-Spaniards born in Spain are from the former Spanish colony Equatorial Guinea. Today, there are an estimated 683,000 Afro-Spaniards in Spain.
According to the Office for National Statistics, at the 2001 census there were over a million black people in the United Kingdom; 1% of the total population described themselves as "Black Caribbean", 0.8% as "Black African", and 0.2% as "Black other". Britain encouraged the immigration of workers from the Caribbean after World War II; the first symbolic movement was those who came on the ship the Empire Windrush. The preferred official umbrella term is "black and minority ethnic" (BME), but sometimes the term "black" is used on its own, to express unified opposition to racism, as in the Southall Black Sisters, which started with a mainly British Asian constituency, and the National Black Police Association, which has a membership of "African, African-Caribbean and Asian origin".
As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered many of their citizens the chance to study in Russia. Over a period of 40 years, about 400,000 African students from various countries moved to Russia to pursue higher studies, including many Black Africans. This extended beyond the Soviet Union to many countries of the Eastern bloc.
Due to the slave trade in the Ottoman Empire that had flourished in the Balkans, the coastal town of Ulcinj in Montenegro had its own black community. As a consequence of the slave trade and privateer activity, it is told how until 1878 in Ulcinj 100 black people lived. The Ottoman Army also deployed an estimated 30,000 Black African troops and cavalrymen to its expedition in Hungary during the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–18.
Indigenous Australians have been referred to as "black people" in Australia since the early days of European settlement. While originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander ancestry in general and can refer to people of any skin pigmentation.
Being identified as either "black" or "white" in Australia during the 19th and early 20th centuries was critical in one's employment and social prospects. Various state-based Aboriginal Protection Boards were established which had virtually complete control over the lives of Indigenous Australians – where they lived, their employment, marriage, education and included the power to separate children from their parents. Aborigines were not allowed to vote and were often confined to reserves and forced into low paid or effectively slave labour. The social position of mixed-race or "half-caste" individuals varied over time. A 1913 report by Baldwin Spencer states that:
the half-castes belong neither to the aboriginal nor to the whites, yet, on the whole, they have more leaning towards the former; ... One thing is certain and that is that the white population as a whole will never mix with half-castes... the best and kindest thing is to place them on reserves along with the natives, train them in the same schools and encourage them to marry amongst themselves.
After the First World War, however, it became apparent that the number of mixed-race people was growing at a faster rate than the white population, and by 1930 fear of the "half-caste menace" undermining the White Australia ideal from within was being taken as a serious concern. Cecil Cook, the Northern Territory Protector of Natives, noted that:
generally by the fifth and invariably by the sixth generation, all native characteristics of the Australian Aborigine are eradicated. The problem of our half-castes will quickly be eliminated by the complete disappearance of the black race, and the swift submergence of their progeny in the white.
The official policy became one of biological and cultural assimilation: "Eliminate the full-blood and permit the white admixture to half-castes and eventually the race will become white". This led to different treatment for "black" and "half-caste" individuals, with lighter-skinned individuals targeted for removal from their families to be raised as "white" people, restricted from speaking their native language and practising traditional customs, a process now known as the Stolen Generation.
The second half of the 20th century to the present has seen a gradual shift towards improved human rights for Aboriginal people. In a 1967 referendum over 90% of the Australian population voted to end constitutional discrimination and to include Aborigines in the national census. During this period many Aboriginal activists began to embrace the term "black" and use their ancestry as a source of pride. Activist Bob Maza said:
I only hope that when I die I can say I'm black and it's beautiful to be black. It is this sense of pride which we are trying to give back to the aborigine [sic] today.
In 1978 Aboriginal writer Kevin Gilbert received the National Book Council award for his book Living Black: Blacks Talk to Kevin Gilbert, a collection of Aboriginal people's stories, and in 1998 was awarded (but refused to accept) the Human Rights Award for Literature for Inside Black Australia, a poetry anthology and exhibition of Aboriginal photography. In contrast to previous definitions based solely on the degree of Aboriginal ancestry, in 1990 the Government changed the legal definition of Aboriginal to include any:
person of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander and is accepted as such by the community in which he [or she] lives
This nationwide acceptance and recognition of Aboriginal people led to a significant increase in the number of people self-identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander. The reappropriation of the term "black" with a positive and more inclusive meaning has resulted in its widespread use in mainstream Australian culture, including public media outlets, government agencies, and private companies. In 2012, a number of high-profile cases highlighted the legal and community attitude that identifying as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander is not dependent on skin colour, with a well-known boxer Anthony Mundine being widely criticised for questioning the "blackness" of another boxer and journalist Andrew Bolt being successfully sued for publishing discriminatory comments about Aboriginals with light skin.
John Caesar, nicknamed "Black Caesar", a convict and bushranger with parents born in an unknown area in Africa, was one of the first people of recent Black African ancestry to arrive in Australia.
At the 2006 Census, 248,605 residents declared that they were born in Africa. This figure pertains to all immigrants to Australia who were born in nations in Africa regardless of race, and includes White Africans.
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African ancestry, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada. The majority of Black Canadians are of Caribbean origin, though the population also consists of African American immigrants and their descendants (including Black Nova Scotians), as well as many African immigrants.
Black Canadians often draw a distinction between those of Afro-Caribbean ancestry and those of other African roots. The term African Canadian is occasionally used by some Black Canadians who trace their heritage to the first slaves brought by British and French colonists to the North American mainland. Promised freedom by the British during the American Revolutionary War, thousands of Black Loyalists were resettled by the Crown in Canada afterward, such as Thomas Peters. In addition, an estimated ten to thirty thousand fugitive slaves reached freedom in Canada from the Southern United States during the antebellum years, aided by people along the Underground Railroad.
Many Black people of Caribbean origin in Canada reject the term African Canadian as an elision of the uniquely Caribbean aspects of their heritage, and instead identify as Caribbean Canadian. Unlike in the United States, where African American has become a widely used term, in Canada controversies associated with distinguishing African or Caribbean heritage have resulted in the term "Black Canadian" being widely accepted there.
There were eight principal areas used by Europeans to buy and ship slaves to the Western Hemisphere. The number of enslaved people sold to the New World varied throughout the slave trade. As for the distribution of slaves from regions of activity, certain areas produced far more enslaved people than others. Between 1650 and 1900, 10.24 million enslaved West Africans arrived in the Americas from the following regions in the following proportions:
- Senegambia (Senegal and the Gambia): 4.8%
- Upper Guinea (Guinea-Bissau, Guinea and Sierra Leone): 4.1%
- Windward Coast (Liberia and Ivory Coast): 1.8%
- Gold Coast (Ghana and east of Ivory Coast): 10.4%
- Bight of Benin (Togo, Benin and Nigeria west of the Niger Delta): 20.2%
- Bight of Biafra (Nigeria east of the Niger Delta, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon): 14.6%
- West Central Africa (Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola): 39.4%
- Southeastern Africa (Mozambique and Madagascar): 4.7%
The variants neger and negar, derive from the Spanish and Portuguese word negro (black), and from the now-pejorative French nègre (negro). Etymologically, negro, noir, nègre, and nigger ultimately derive from nigrum, the stem of the Latin niger (black) (pronounced [ˈniɡer] which, in every other grammatical case, grammatical gender, and grammatical number besides nominative masculine singular, is nigr-, the r is trilled).
By the 1900s, nigger had become a pejorative word in the United States. In its stead, the term colored became the mainstream alternative to negro and its derived terms. After the civil rights movement, the terms colored and negro gave way to "black". Negro had superseded colored as the most polite word for African Americans at a time when black was considered more offensive. This term was accepted as normal, including by people classified as Negroes, until the later Civil Rights movement in the late 1960s. One well-known example is the identification by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. of his own race as "Negro" in his famous speech of 1963, I Have a Dream. During the American civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, some African-American leaders in the United States, notably Malcolm X, objected to the word Negro because they associated it with the long history of slavery, segregation, and discrimination that treated African Americans as second-class citizens, or worse. Malcolm X preferred Black to Negro, but later gradually abandoned that as well for Afro-American after leaving the Nation of Islam.
Since the late 1960s, various other terms for African Americans have been more widespread in popular usage. Aside from Black American, these include Afro-American (in use from the late 1960s to 1990) and African American (used in the United States to refer to Black Americans, people often referred to in the past as American Negroes).
In the first 200 years that black people were in the United States, they primarily identified themselves by their specific ethnic group (closely allied to language) and not by skin color. Individuals identified themselves, for example, as Ashanti, Igbo, Bakongo, or Wolof. However, when the first captives were brought to the Americas, they were often combined with other groups from West Africa, and individual ethnic affiliations were not generally acknowledged by English colonists. In areas of the Upper South, different ethnic groups were brought together. This is significant as the captives came from a vast geographic region: the West African coastline stretching from Senegal to Angola and in some cases from the south-east coast such as Mozambique. A new African-American identity and culture was born that incorporated elements of the various ethnic groups and of European cultural heritage, resulting in fusions such as the Black church and African-American English. This new identity was based on provenance and slave status rather than membership in any one ethnic group.
By contrast, slave records from Louisiana show that the French and Spanish colonists recorded more complete identities of the West Africans, including ethnicities and given tribal names.
The US racial or ethnic classification "black" refers to people with all possible kinds of skin pigmentation, from the darkest through to the very lightest skin colors, including albinos, if they are believed by others to have African ancestry (in any discernible percentage). There are also certain cultural traits associated with being "African American", a term used effectively as a synonym for "black person" within the United States.
In March 1807, Great Britain, which largely controlled the Atlantic, declared the transatlantic slave trade illegal, as did the United States. (The latter prohibition took effect 1 January 1808, the earliest date on which Congress had the power to do so after protecting the slave trade under Article I, Section 9 of the United States Constitution.)
By that time, the majority of black people in the United States were native-born, so the use of the term "African" became problematic. Though initially a source of pride, many blacks feared that the use of African as an identity would be a hindrance to their fight for full citizenship in the US. They also felt that it would give ammunition to those who were advocating repatriating black people back to Africa. In 1835, black leaders called upon Black Americans to remove the title of "African" from their institutions and replace it with "Negro" or "Colored American". A few institutions chose to keep their historic names, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church. African Americans popularly used the terms "Negro" or "colored" for themselves until the late 1960s.
The term black was used throughout but not frequently since it carried a certain stigma. In his 1963 "I Have a Dream" speech, Martin Luther King, Jr. uses the terms negro fifteen times and black four times. Each time he uses black it is in parallel construction with white; for example, "black men and white men".
With the successes of the civil rights movement, a new term was needed to break from the past and help shed the reminders of legalized discrimination. In place of Negro, activists promoted the use of black as standing for racial pride, militancy, and power. Some of the turning points included the use of the term "Black Power" by Kwame Toure (Stokely Carmichael) and the popular singer James Brown's song "Say It Loud – I'm Black and I'm Proud".
In 1988, the civil rights leader Jesse Jackson urged Americans to use instead the term "African American" because it had a historical cultural base and was a construction similar to terms used by European descendants, such as German American, Italian American, etc. Since then, African American and black have often had parallel status. However, controversy continues over which if any of the two terms is more appropriate. Maulana Karenga argues that the term African-American is more appropriate because it accurately articulates their geographical and historical origin. Others have argued that "black" is a better term because "African" suggests foreignness, although Black Americans helped found the United States. Still others believe that the term black is inaccurate because African Americans have a variety of skin tones. Some surveys suggest that the majority of Black Americans have no preference for "African American" or "Black", although they have a slight preference for "black" in personal settings and "African American" in more formal settings.
In the U.S. census race definitions, Black and African Americans are citizens and residents of the United States with origins in Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the Office of Management and Budget, the grouping includes individuals who self-identify as African American, as well as persons who emigrated from nations in the Caribbean and Sub-Saharan Africa. The grouping is thus based on geography, and may contradict or misrepresent an individual's self-identification since not all immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa are "Black". The Census Bureau also notes that these classifications are socio-political constructs and should not be interpreted as scientific or anthropological.
According to US Census Bureau data, African immigrants generally do not self-identify as African American. The overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities (~95%). Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not also self-identify with the term.
Recent surveys of African Americans using a genetic testing service have found varied ancestries which show different tendencies by region and sex of ancestors. These studies found that on average, African Americans have 73.2–80.9% West African, 18–24% European, and 0.8–0.9% Native American genetic heritage, with large variation between individuals.
From the late 19th century, the South used a colloquial term, the one-drop rule, to classify as black a person of any known African ancestry. This practice of hypodescent was not put into law until the early 20th century. Legally the definition varied from state to state. Racial definition was more flexible in the 18th and 19th centuries before the American Civil War. For instance, President Thomas Jefferson held persons who were legally white (less than 25% black) according to Virginia law at the time, but, because they were born to slave mothers, they were born into slavery, according to the principle of partus sequitur ventrem, which Virginia adopted into law in 1662.
Outside the U.S., some other countries have adopted the one-drop rule, but the definition of who is black and the extent to which the one-drop "rule" applies varies greatly from country to country.
The one-drop rule may have originated as a means of increasing the number of black slaves and was maintained as an attempt to keep the white race pure.[unreliable source] One of the results of the one-drop rule was the uniting of the African-American community. Some of the most prominent abolitionists and civil-rights activists of the 19th century were multiracial, such as Frederick Douglass, Robert Purvis and James Mercer Langston. They advocated equality for all.
The concept of blackness in the United States has been described as the degree to which one associates themselves with mainstream African-American culture, politics, and values. To a certain extent, this concept is not so much about race but more about political orientation, culture and behavior. Blackness can be contrasted with "acting white", where black Americans are said to behave with assumed characteristics of stereotypical white Americans with regard to fashion, dialect, taste in music, and possibly, from the perspective of a significant number of black youth, academic achievement.
Due to the often political and cultural contours of blackness in the United States, the notion of blackness can also be extended to non-black people. Toni Morrison once described Bill Clinton as the first black President of the United States, because, as she put it, he displayed "almost every trope of blackness". Christopher Hitchens was offended by the notion of Clinton as the first black president, noting, "Mr Clinton, according to Toni Morrison, the Nobel Prize-winning novelist, is our first black President, the first to come from the broken home, the alcoholic mother, the under-the-bridge shadows of our ranking systems. Thus, we may have lost the mystical power to divine diabolism, but we can still divine blackness by the following symptoms: broken homes, alcoholic mothers, under-the-bridge habits and (presumable from the rest of [Arthur] Miller's senescent musings) the tendency to sexual predation and to shameless perjury about same." Some black activists were also offended, claiming that Clinton used his knowledge of black culture to exploit black people for political gain as no other president had before, while not serving black interests. They cite the lack of action during the Rwandan genocide and his welfare reform, which Larry Roberts said had led to the worst child poverty since the 1960s. Others cited that the number of black people in jail increased during his administration.
The question of blackness also arose in the Democrat Barack Obama's 2008 presidential campaign. Commentators have questioned whether Obama, who was elected the first president with black ancestry, is "black enough", contending that his background is not typical because his mother was white American, and his father was a black Kenyan immigrant. Obama chose to identify as black and African-American.
In July 2012, Ancestry.com reported on historic and DNA research by its staff that discovered that Obama is likely a descendant through his mother of John Punch, considered by some historians to be the first African slave in the Virginia colony. An indentured servant, he was "bound for life" in 1640 after trying to escape. The story of him and his descendants is that of multi-racial America since it appeared he and his sons married or had unions with white women, likely indentured servants and working-class like them. Their multi-racial children were free because they were born to free English women. Over time, Obama's line of the Bunch family (as they became known) were property owners and continued to "marry white"; they became part of white society, likely by the early to mid-18th century.
Race mixing in the United States
Race mixing in the United States took place between free colored people, Native Americans and European Americans. In Virginia, negro former slaves who had maintained their freedom married Native American women.
200,000 slaves were shipped from West Africa to Mexico by Spanish conquistadors. The history of these Afro-Mexicans was hidden until 2016. Racism against them and dark skin generally in Mexico and most of Latin America is prevalent.
The first Afro-Dominican slaves were shipped to the Dominican Republic by Spanish conquistadors during the Transatlantic slave trade.
Spanish conquistadors shipped slaves from West Africa to Puerto Rico. Afro-Puerto Ricans in part trace descent to this colonization of the island.
Approximately 12 million people were shipped from Africa to the Americas during the Atlantic slave trade from 1492 to 1888. Of these, 11.5 million of those shipped to South America and the Caribbean. Brazil was the largest importer in the Americas, with 5.5 million African slaves imported, followed by the British Caribbean with 2.76 million, the Spanish Caribbean and Spanish Mainland with 1.59 million Africans, and the French Caribbean with 1.32 million. Today their descendants number approximately 150 million in South America and the Caribbean. In addition to skin color, other physical characteristics such as facial features and hair texture are often variously used in classifying peoples as black in South America and the Caribbean. In South America and the Caribbean, classification as black is also closely tied to social status and socioeconomic variables, especially in light of social conceptions of "blanqueamiento" (racial whitening) and related concepts.
The concept of race in Brazil is complex. A Brazilian child was never automatically identified with the racial type of one or both of his or her parents, nor were there only two categories to choose from. Between an individual of unmixed West African ancestry and a very light mulatto individual, more than a dozen racial categories were acknowledged, based on various combinations of hair color, hair texture, eye color, and skin color. These types grade into each other like the colors of the spectrum, and no one category stands significantly isolated from the rest. In Brazil, people are classified by appearance, not heredity.
Scholars disagree over the effects of social status on racial classifications in Brazil. It is generally believed that achieving upward mobility and education results in individuals being classified as a category of lighter skin. The popular claim is that in Brazil, poor whites are considered black and wealthy blacks are considered white. Some scholars disagree, arguing that "whitening" of one's social status may be open to people of mixed race, a large part of the population known as pardo, but a person perceived as preto (black) will continue to be classified as black regardless of wealth or social status.
|Brazilian Population, by Race, from 1872 to 1991 (Census Data)|
|Ethnic group||White||Black||Brown||Yellow (Asian)||Undeclared||Total|
From the years 1500 to 1850, an estimated 3.5 million captives were forcibly shipped from West/Central Africa to Brazil. The territory received the highest number of slaves of any country in the Americas. Scholars estimate that more than half of the Brazilian population is at least in part descended from these individuals. Brazil has the largest population of Afro-ancestry outside Africa. In contrast to the US, during the slavery period and after, the Portuguese colonial government in Brazil and the later Brazilian government did not pass formal anti-miscegenation or segregation laws. As in other Latin American countries, intermarriage was prevalent during the colonial period and continued afterward. In addition, people of mixed race (pardo) often tended to marry white spouses, and their descendants became accepted as white. As a result, some of the European descended population also has West African or Amerindian blood. According to the last census of the 20th century, in which Brazilians could choose from five color/ethnic categories with which they identified, 54% of individuals identified as white, 6.2% identified as black, and 39.5% identified as pardo (brown) — a broad multi-racial category, including tri-racial persons.
In the 19th century, a philosophy of racial whitening emerged in Brazil, related to the assimilation of mixed-race people into the white population through intermarriage. Until recently the government did not keep data on race. However, statisticians estimate that in 1835, roughly 50% of the population was preto (black; most were enslaved), a further 20% was pardo (brown), and 25% white, with the remainder Amerindian. Some classified as pardo were tri-racial.
By the 2000 census, demographic changes including the end to slavery, immigration from Europe and Asia, assimilation of multiracial persons, and other factors resulted in a population in which 6.2% of the population identified as black, 40% as pardo, and 55% as white. Essentially most of the black population was absorbed into the multi-racial category by intermixing. A 2007 genetic study found that at least 29% of the middle-class, white Brazilian population had some recent (since 1822 and the end of the colonial period) African ancestry.
Race relations in Brazil
Because of the acceptance of miscegenation, Brazil has avoided the binary polarization of society into black and white. In addition, it abolished slavery without a civil war. The bitter and sometimes violent racial tensions that have divided the US are notably absent in Brazil. According to the 2010 census, 6.7% of Brazilians said they were black, compared with 6.2% in 2000, and 43.1% said they were racially mixed, up from 38.5%. In 2010, Elio Ferreira de Araujo, Brazil's minister for racial equality, attributed the increases to growing pride among his country's black and indigenous communities.
The philosophy of the racial democracy in Brazil has drawn some criticism, based on economic issues. Brazil has one of the largest gaps in income distribution in the world. The richest 10% of the population earn 28 times the average income of the bottom 40%. The richest 10 percent is almost exclusively white or predominantly European in ancestry. One-third of the population lives under the poverty line, with blacks and other people of color accounting for 70 percent of the poor.
In 2015 United States, African Americans, including multiracial people, earned 76.8% as much as white people. By contrast, black and mixed race Brazilians earned on average 58% as much as whites in 2014. The gap in income between blacks and other non-whites is relatively small compared to the large gap between whites and all people of color. Other social factors, such as illiteracy and education levels, show the same patterns of disadvantage for people of color.
Some commentators[who?] observe that the United States practice of segregation and white supremacy in the South, and discrimination in many areas outside that region, forced many African Americans to unite in the civil rights struggle, whereas the fluid nature of race in Brazil has divided individuals of African descent between those with more or less ancestry and helped sustain an image of the country as an example of post-colonial harmony. This has hindered the development of a common identity among black Brazilians.
Though Brazilians of at least partial African heritage make up a large percentage of the population, few blacks have been elected as politicians. The city of Salvador, Bahia, for instance, is 80% people of color, but voters have not elected a mayor of color. Journalists like to say that US cities with black majorities, such as Detroit and New Orleans, have not elected white mayors since after the civil rights movement, when the Voting Rights Act of 1965 protected the franchise for minorities, and blacks in the South regained the power to vote for the first time since the turn of the 20th century. New Orleans elected its first black mayor in the 1970s. New Orleans elected a white mayor after the widescale disruption and damage of Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
Patterns of discrimination against non-whites have led some academic and other activists to advocate for use of the Portuguese term negro to encompass all African-descended people, in order to stimulate a "black" consciousness and identity.
Afro-Colombians are the second largest African diaspora population in Latin America after Afro-Brazilians.
Most Black Venezuelans came directly from Africa having been brought as slaves during colonization; others have been descendants of immigrants from the Antilles and Colombia. The blacks were part of the independence movement, and several managed to be heroes. There is a deep-rooted heritage of African culture in Venezuelan culture, as demonstrated in many traditional Venezuelan music and dances, such as the Tambor, a musical genre inherited from the blacks of the colony, or the Llanera music or the Gaita zuliana that both are a fusion of all the three major peoples that contribute to the cultural heritage. Also the black inheritance is present in the gastronomy.
There are entire communities of blacks in the Barlovento zone, as well as part of the Bolívar state and in other small towns; they also live peaceably among the general population in the rest of Venezuela. Currently blacks represent a relative majority in the Venezuelan population, although many are actually mixed people.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Black people.|
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Black people|
- African diaspora
- Black women
- Lists of black people
- Black supremacy
- Levinson, =Meira (2012). No Citizen Left Behind. Harvard University Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-0674065291.
- "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Frigi et al. 2010, Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian Berber Populations, Human Biology, Volume 82, Number 4, August 2010.
- Harich et .al (2010). "The trans-Saharan slave trade – clues from interpolation analyses and high-resolution characterization of mitochondrial DNA lineages". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 10 (138): 138. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-10-138. PMC 2875235. PMID 20459715.
- Lewis, Race and Slavery in the Middle East, Oxford University Press, 1994.
- "Abīd al-Bukhārī (Moroccan military organization)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Musselman, Anson. "The Subtle Racism of Latin America". UCLA International Institute. Archived from the original on 4 June 2003.
- Joseph Finklestone, Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared, pp. 5–7, 31. ISBN 0-7146-3487-5.
- See Tahfeem ul Qur'an by Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi, Vol. 2, pp. 112–113, footnote 44. See also commentary on verses [Quran 23:1]: Vol. 3, notes 7–1, p. 241; 2000, Islamic Publications.
- Tafsir ibn Kathir 4:24.
- Hunwick, John. "Arab Views of Black Africans and Slavery" (PDF).
- Johnson, Hilde F. (2011). Waging Peace in Sudan: The Inside Story of the Negotiations that Ended Africa's Longest Civil War. Sussex Academic Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-1-84519-453-6.
- Vukoni Lupa Lasaga, "The slow, violent death of apartheid in Sudan," 19 September 2006, Norwegian Council for Africa.
- George Ayittey, "Africa and China," The Economist, 19 February 2010.
- Ayittey, George B.N. (1999). "How the Multilateral Institutions Compounded Africa's Economic Crisis". Law and Policy in International Business. 30.
- Koigi wa Wamwere (2003). Negative Ethnicity: From Bias to Genocide. Seven Stories Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-1-58322-576-9.
George B.N. Ayittey (15 January 1999). Africa in Chaos: A Comparative History. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-312-21787-7.
George B. N. Ayittey (2006). Indigenous African Institutions. Transnational Publishers. ISBN 978-1-57105-337-4.
Diallo, Garba (1993). "Mauritania, the other apartheid?" (PDF). Current African Issues. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet (16).
- Nicolaisen, Johannes (1963). Ecology and Culture of the Pastoral Tuareg: With Particular Reference to the Tuareg of Ahaggar and Ayr. National Museum of Copenhagen. p. 16.
- Alcobé, Santiago (November 1947). "The Physical Anthropology of the West Saharan Nomads". Man. 47: 141–143. doi:10.2307/2791649. JSTOR 2791649.
- Christoph Bochinger, Jörg Rüpke (ed.) (2017). Dynamics of Religion: Past and Present. Proceedings of the XXI World Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. PT306. ISBN 978-3110451108.
Gorgoryos had already named another concept in Ge'ez[...] (shanqella), which means something like 'negro' in a pejorative sense.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Trimingham, James (2013). Islam in Ethiopia. Routledge. p. 221. ISBN 978-1136970221.
These negroes are the remnants of the original inhabitants of the fluvial region of Somaliland who were overwhelmed by the wave of Somali conquest.[...] The Dube and Shabeli are often referred to as the Adone
- Tibebu, Teshale (1995). The Making of Modern Ethiopia: 1896–1974. The Red Sea Press. pp. 60–61. ISBN 9781569020012.
- Hoyland, Robert. "Sabbatical Notes". ISAW. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Nullis, Clare (8 January 2007). "Township tourism booming in South Africa". Associated Press. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Eusebius McKaiser (15 February 2012). "Not White Enough, Not Black Enough". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Hatred for Black People; by Shehu Sani; Xlibris Corporation, 2013; ISBN 9781493120765; page 43.
- Mohamed Adhikari (2004). "'Not Black Enough': Changing Expressions of Coloured Identity in Post-Apartheid South Africa" (PDF). South African Historical Journal. 51: 168.
- "We agree that you are black, South African court tells Chinese", The Times.
- du Preez, Max (13 April 2006). "Coloureds – the most authentic SA citizens". The Star. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Bird, Stephanie Rose (2009). Light, bright, and damned near white : biracial and triracial culture in America. ...he is also Blasian (Black-Asian)... Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-2759-8954-5.
- Reicheneker, Sierra (January 2011). "The Marginalization of Afro-Asians in East Asia: Globalization and the Creation of Subculture and Hybrid Identity". There Are Several Models for Analyzing the Marginalization of Ethnic Minorities. The Afro-Asian Population Exemplifies Park's Definition of Marginalization, in That They Are the "product of Human Migrations and Socio-cultural Conflict."15 Born into Relatively New Territory in the Area of Biracial Relations, There Entrance into the Culture of These Asian States Often Causes Quite a Stir. They Also Fit into Green and Goldberg's Definition of Psychological Marginalization, Which Constitutes Multiple Attempts at Assimilation with the Dominant Culture Followed by Continued Rejection. The Magazine Ebony, from 1967, Outlines a Number of Afro-Asians in Japan Who Find Themselves as Outcasts, Most of Which Try to Find Acceptance within the American Military Bubble, but with Varying Degrees of Success.16. 5 (1). Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- A. Klein (2002), Historical Dictionary of Slavery and Abolition, Page xxii, Saudi Arabia and Yemen abolished slavery in 1962, Oman in 1970.
- "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Focus on the slave trade", BBC.
- "Dr Susan". Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Timothy Williams, "In Iraq's African Enclave, Color is Plainly Seen", The New York Times, 2 December 2009: "But on the packed dirt streets of Zubayr, Iraq's scaled-down version of Harlem, African-Iraqis talk of discrimination so steeped in Iraqi culture that they are commonly referred to as "abd" — slave in Arabic — prohibited from interracial marriage and denied even menial jobs...Historians say that most African-Iraqis arrived as slaves from East Africa as part of the Arab slave trade starting about 1,400 years ago. They worked in southern Iraq's salt marshes and sugarcane fields. Though slavery — which in Iraq included Arabs as well as Africans — was banned in the 1920s, it continued until the 1950s, African-Iraqis say. Recently, they have begun to campaign for recognition as a minority population, which would grant them the same benefits as Christians, including reserved seats in Parliament..."Black people here are living in fear," said Jalal Dhiyab Thijeel, an advocate for the country's estimated 1.2 million African-Iraqis. "We want to end that.""
- Alamin M. Mazrui et al., Debating the African Condition (2004), ISBN 1-59221-145-3, p. 324: "But many Arabs were themselves Black. To the present day there are Arab princes in Saudi Arabia who, in the Western world, would be regarded as 'Black'. One of the main reasons why the African Diaspora in the Arab world is so small is that people with African blood are much more readily accepted as Arabs than they would be accepted as 'Whites' in the Americas."
- F.R.C. Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim Empires, (Brill: 1997), p.174.
- Bethwell A. Ogot, Zamani: A Survey of East African History, (East African Publishing House: 1974), p.104.
- "The Ethiopian Population In Israel" Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, Reuters. 16 July 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Mitnick, Joshua. "Why Jews see racism in Israel", Christian Science Monitor, 1 September 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Collins, Toby (18 August 2012). "Israel deports Sudanese asylum seekers as S. Sudanese nationals". Sudan Tribune. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Sherwood, Harriet (20 May 2012). "Israel PM: Illegal African immigrants threaten identity of Jewish state". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Ayvalık'ın renkli derneği". Archived from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- "Turks with African ancestors want their existence to be felt". Today's Zaman. 11 May 2008. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Walz, Terence; Cuno, Kenneth M. (2010). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in Nineteenth-century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean. American University in Cairo Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-9774163982.
- Shah, Anish M.; et al. (15 July 2011). "Indian Siddis: African ancestry with Indian Admixture". American Journal of Human Genetics. 89 (1): 154–161. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.05.030. PMC 3135801. PMID 21741027.
- John B. Edlefsen, Khalida Shah, Mohsin Farooq, "Makranis, the Negroes of West Pakistan", Phylon (1960–), Vol. 21, No. 2 (2nd Qtr 1960), pp. 124–130. Published by: Clark Atlanta University.
- Albinia, Alice (2012). Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River. UK: Hachette. ISBN 978-0-393-06322-6.
- "Services of Sheedis for Sindh recalled". Dawn. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Jules Quartly (27 November 2004). "In honor of the Little Black People". Taipei Times. p. 16. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Vietnam. Bộ ngoại giao. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1969. p. 28.
- "35. The Negrito of Thailand". Archived from the original on 20 May 2013.
- The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Geography. Wisconsin: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1997. ISBN 978-0-395-86448-7.
- William Marsden (1834). "On the Polynesian, or East-Insular Languages". Miscellaneous Works of William Marsden. Parbury, Allen. p. 4.
- Hajek, John (June 1996). "Unraveling Lowland Semang". Oceanic Linguistics. 35 (1): 138–141. doi:10.2307/3623034. JSTOR 3623034.
- "Beyond the beach: The untold story of Boracay's Ati tribe". GMA News Online. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Richburg, Keith B. (24 April 2005). "Europe's Minority Politicians in Short Supply". The Washington Post. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Sachs, Susan (12 January 2007). "In officially colorblind France, blacks have a dream – and now a lobby". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Menocal, María Rosa (2002). Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain, Little, Brown, & Co., p. 241. ISBN 0-316-16871-8.
- John Randall Baker (1974). "Race". Oxford University Press: 226.
In one sense the word 'Moor' means Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of North-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the 8th century and dominated the country for hundreds of years.Cite journal requires
- Ross Brann, "The Moors?", Andalusia, New York University. Quote: "Andalusi Arabic sources, as opposed to later Mudéjar and Morisco sources in Aljamiado and medieval Spanish texts, neither refer to individuals as Moors nor recognize any such group, community or culture."
- Blackmore, Josiah (2009). Moorings: Portuguese Expansion and the Writing of Africa. University of Minnesota Press. pp. xvi, 18. ISBN 978-0-8166-4832-0.
- Jonathan Conant, Staying Roman: Conquest and Identity in Africa and the Mediterranean, Cambridge University Press, 2012, pp. 439–700.
- "Home- Office for National Statistics". Archived from the original on 13 March 2009.
- NBPA Website The emphasis is on the common experience and determination of the people of African, African-Caribbean and Asian origin.
- "Soviets Launch World's First Black Cosmonaut". Jet. 59 (4): 8. 9 October 1980. ISSN 0021-5996.
- "MediaRights: Film: Black Russians". Archived from the original on 17 April 2011.
- "Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект "Черные русские": синопсис. Info on "Black Russians" film project in English". Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "6". Yugoslavia – Montenegro and Kosovo – The Next Conflict?.
- "Ulcinj History".
- Dieudonne Gnammankou, "African Slave Trade in Russia"], in La Channe et le lien, Doudou Diene, (id.) Paris, Editions UNESCO, 1988.
- "A Proclamation", The Hobart Town Courier, 8 November 1828.
- Byrd, Dylan (6 April 2011). "Aboriginal identity goes beyond skin colour". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Broome, Richard (2005). Aboriginal Victorians: A History Since 1800. Allen & Unwin. pp. 130–131. ISBN 978-1-74114-569-4.
- Aboriginal Protection Board at the State Records Office of Western Australia, accessed 20 December 2012 Archived 10 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Aboriginal Protection and Restriction of the Sale of Opium Act 1897 (Qld)". Museum of Australian Democracy. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Goodall, Heather (1990). "Land In Our Own Country: The Aboriginal Land Rights Movement in South Eastern Australia, 1860 to 1914" (PDF). Aboriginal History. 14: 1–24.
- Armstrong, Mick (October 2004). "Aborigines: Problems of Race and Class" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Spencer, Sir Baldwin (20 May 1913). "Preliminary Report on the Aboriginals of the Northern Territory". p. 21.
- McGregor, Russell (2012). "1". Indifferent Inclusion: Aboriginal People and the Australian Nation. Aboriginal Studies Press. pp. 1–5. ISBN 9780855757793.
- "Bringing them home 8. The History – Northern Territory" (PDF). Australian Human Rights Commission. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- A.O.N, (A. O. Neville, Chief Protector of Aborigines in Western Australia) (18 April 1930). "COLOURED FOLK. Some Pitiful Cases". West Australian. p. 9.
- Australian Human Rights Commission (1997). "Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families" (PDF).
- "Indigenous Australia Timeline – 1901 to 1969". Australian Museum. 3 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Lothian, Kathy (2007). "Moving Blackwards: Black Power and the Aboriginal Embassy" (PDF). In Macfarlane, Ingereth; Hannah, Mark (eds.). Transgressions: Critical Australian Indigenous histories. Australian National University and Aboriginal History Inc. ISBN 9781921313448.
- "Gilbert, Kevin". Teaching Aust. Lit. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Essentially Yours: The Protection of Human Genetic Information in Australia (ALRC Report 96), Chapter 36 Kinship and Identity: Legal definitions of Aboriginality". Australian Law Reform Commission.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (1998). "Population Growth: Growth and distribution of Indigenous people".
- Memmott, Paul; Moran, Mark (2001). "Indigenous Settlements of Australia". Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities.
- Darby, Andrew (1 May 2012). "The forgotten conflict". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Black Screen". Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2012.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Shepherd, Tony (19 October 2012). "Anthony Mundine echoes the Ku Klux Klan: Mansell". news.com.au. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Bolt breached discrimination act, judge rules". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 29 September 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Sparrow, Jeff (17 June 2006). "Black Founders: The Unknown Story of Australia's First Black Settlers". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Harrison, Faye Venetia (2005). Resisting racism and xenophobia : global perspectives on race, gender, and human rights. AltaMira Press. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7591-0482-2.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert (1999). Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. ISBN 978-0-8020-2938-6.
- "2006 Census of Canada – Ethnic Origin".
- "Blacks in Canada: A long history" (PDF). Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- Rinaldo Walcott, Black Like Who?: Writing Black Canada. 2003, Insomniac Press. ISBN 1-894663-40-3.
- "As for terminology, in Canada, it is still appropriate to say Black Canadians." Valerie Pruegger, "Black History Month". Culture and Community Spirit, Government of Alberta.
- Lovejoy, Paul E. Transformations in Slavery. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
- Nguyen, Elizabeth, "Origins of Black History Month" Archived 2 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Spartan Daily, Campus News. San Jose State University, 24 February 2004. Accessed 12 April 2008.
- Smith, Tom W (1992). "Changing racial labels: from 'Colored' to 'Negro' to 'Black' to 'African American'". Public Opinion Quarterly. 56 (4): 496–514. doi:10.1086/269339.
- Liz Mazucci, "Going Back to Our Own: Interpreting Malcolm X's Transition From 'Black Asiatic' to 'Afro-American'", Souls 7(1), 2005, pp. 66–83.
- Christopher H. Foreman, The African-American predicament, Brookings Institution Press, 1999, p.99.
- "LINGUISTICS AND AFRICA | Black or African | Sub-Saharan Africa | Feminism | Pre-Colonial | Spiritual vs Religious". www.africanholocaust.net. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
- Gwendolyn Midlo Hall, Africans in Colonial Louisiana: The Development of Afro-Creole Culture in the Eighteenth Century, Louisiana State University Press, 1992/1995.
- African American Journeys to Africa, pp. 63–64.
- Martin Luther King, Jr. (28 August 1963). I Have a Dream (Google Video). Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010.
- Smith, Tom W. (Winter 1992). "Changing Racial Labels: From "Colored" to "Negro" to "Black" to "African American"". The Public Opinion Quarterly. Oxford University Press. 56 (4): 496–514. doi:10.1086/269339. JSTOR 2749204. OCLC 192150485.
- McWhorter, John H. (8 September 2004). "Why I'm Black, Not African American". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Relethford, JH (2000). "Human skin color diversity is highest in sub-Saharan African populations". Human Biology; an International Record of Research. 72 (5): 773–80. PMID 11126724.
- Shriver M.D.; Parra E.J.; Dios S.; et al. (April 2003). "Skin pigmentation, biogeographical ancestry and admixture mapping" (PDF). Human Genetics. 112 (4): 387–399. doi:10.1007/s00439-002-0896-y (inactive 20 August 2019). PMID 12579416.
- Newport, Frank (28 September 2007). "Black or African American". Gallup. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Miller, Pepper; Kemp, Herb (2006). What's Black About? Insights to Increase Your Share of a Changing African-American Market. Paramount Market Publishing, Inc. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-9725290-9-9. OCLC 61694280.
- "Race, Ethnicity, and Language data – Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement" (PDF). Institute of Medicine of the National Academies. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Sonya Tastogi; Tallese D. Johnson; Elizabeth M. Hoeffel; Malcolm P. Drewery, Jr. (September 2011). "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. United States Department of Commerce. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "2000 US Census basics" (PDF). Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Kusow, Abdi M. "African Immigrants in the United States: Implications for Affirmative Action". Iowa State University. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "The size and regional distribution of the black population". Lewis Mumford Center. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007.
- Katarzyna Bryc; Adam Auton; Matthew R. Nelson; Jorge R. Oksenberg; Stephen L. Hauser; Scott Williams; Alain Froment; Jean-Marie Bodo; Charles Wambebe; Sarah A. Tishkoff; Carlos D. Bustamante (12 January 2010). "Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 107 (2): 786–791. Bibcode:2010PNAS..107..786B. doi:10.1073/pnas.0909559107. PMC 2818934. PMID 20080753.
- Katarzyna Bryc; Eric Y. Durand; J. Michael Macpherson; David Reich; Joanna L. Mountain (8 January 2015). "The Genetic Ancestry of African Americans, Latinos, and European Americans across the United States". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 96 (1): 37–53. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.11.010. PMC 4289685. PMID 25529636. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
- Soheil Baharian; Maxime Barakatt; Christopher R. Gignoux; Suyash Shringarpure; Jacob Errington; William J. Blot; Carlos D. Bustamante; Eimear E. Kenny; Scott M. Williams; Melinda C. Aldrich; Simon Gravel (27 May 2015). "The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity". PLOS Genetics. 12 (5): e1006059. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006059. PMC 4883799. PMID 27232753.
- James, F. Davis. "Who is Black? One Nation's Definition". PBS. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Clarence Page, A Credit to His Races, The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, 1 May 1997.
- Sweet, Frank (1 April 2006). "Presenting the Triumph of the One-Drop Rule". The One-Drop Rule. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Jolivétte, Andrew (2012). Obama and the Biracial Factor: The Battle for a New American Majority. Policy Press. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1447301004.
He is not only the first self-identified African American/person of color to be elected President of the United States—but he is also the first biracial person to hold this office.
- "Remarks of Senator Barack Obama: "A More Perfect Union" (transcript)" (PDF). BBC News. 18 March 2008. p. 2. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
This is not to say that race has not been an issue in the campaign. At various stages in the campaign, some commentators have deemed me either "too black" or "not black enough". Racial tensions bubbled to the surface during the week before the South Carolina primary. The press has scoured every exit poll for the latest evidence of racial polarization, not just in terms of white and black, but black and brown as well.See also: video
- Adesioye, Lola (27 June 2008). "Ralph Nader's guilt complex". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Coates, Ta-Nehisi Paul (1 February 2007). "Is Obama Black Enough?". Time. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
Barack Obama's real problem isn't that he's too white — it's that he's too black.
- Eze, Chielozona (2011). Postcolonial Imaginations and Moral Representations. p. 25. ISBN 978-0739145081.
For Du Bois, blackness is political, it is existential, but above all, it is moral, for in it values abound; these values spring from the fact of being an oppressed.
- Olson, Barbara (2003). The Final Days. p. 58. ISBN 978-0895261250.
In fact, Bill Clinton had promoted an even worse variation, that authentic blackness is political...
- Olatunde, Allen Timilehin. Missions in the Dark Soil: Life and Work of Thomas Jefferson Bowen in Africa. aiconcept. p. 92. ISBN 978-978-52387-6-1.
- Edler, Melissa (Spring 2007). "Acting White". Kent State Magazine. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2008.
- Ogbu, J. "Black American students in an affluent suburb: a study of academic disengagement". Erlbaum Associates Press. Mahwah, NJ. 2003.
- Hansen, Suzy (20 February 2002). "Blacks and Bill Clinton". Salon. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Morrison, Toni (5 October 1998). "Comment". The New Yorker.
- Christopher Hitchens (18 April 1999). "Bill Clinton: Is he the most crooked President in history?". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- "Find Articles 404 File not found". Archived from the original on 28 February 2008.
- Carroll, Rory (31 March 2004). "US chose to ignore Rwandan genocide". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Roberts, Larry (2 June 1999). "Clinton's welfare reform has increased child poverty". World Socialist website. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Gray, Kevin A. (7 December 2002). "Soul Brother? Clinton and Black Americans". Counterpunch. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Kroft, Steve (11 February 2007). "A Transcript Excerpt Of Steve Kroft's Interview With Sen. Obama". CBS News. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Anastasia Harman, Natalie D. Cottrill, Paul C. Reed, and Joseph Shumway, "Documenting President Barack Obama's Maternal African-American Ancestry: Tracing His Mother's Bunch Ancestry to the First Slave in America", Ancestry.com, 16 July 2012, p. 19.
- "6 Shocking Facts About Slavery, Natives and African Americans - IndianCountryToday.com". indiancountrymedianetwork.com.
- "Afro-Mexican Beauty Queen Samantha Leytva Criticizes Racism". Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- United Nations Slavery Memorial Archived 10 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine: "Accurate figures are still not available but at a conservative estimate, using the figures that have been generated by the latest Slave Trade Database, of the estimated millions transported, Portugal dominated the trade with 5.8 million or 46%, while Great Britain transported 3.25 million or 26%, France accounted for 1.38 million or 11%, and Spain 1.06 million or 8%. So it is unmistakable, that the 4 leading colonial powers accounted for a combined total of 11.5 million Africans or 92% of the overall trade. The remainder was transported by the US 305,326, the Netherlands 554,336, and Denmark/Baltic 111,041. There were several stages to the trade. During the first phase between 1501 and 1600, an estimated 277,509 Africans or just 2% of the overall trade, were sent to the Americas and Europe. During the 17th century, some 15% or 1,875,631 Africans embarked for the Americas. The period from 1701 to the passage of the British Abolition Act in 1807 was the peak of the trade. Here an estimated 7,163,241 or 57% of the trafficking in Africans transpired, with the remaining 26% or 3,204,935 occurring between 1808 and 1866."
- United Nations Slavery Memorial Archived 10 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine:"In the Americas, Brazil was the largest importer of Africans, accounting for 5.5 million or 44%, the British Caribbean with 2.76 million or 22%, the French Caribbean 1.32 million, and the Spanish Caribbean and Spanish Mainland accounting for 1.59 million. The relatively high numbers for Brazil and the British Caribbean is largely a reflection of the dominance and continued expansion of the plantation system in those regions. Even more so, the inability of the enslaved population in these regions to reproduce meant that the replacement demand for laborers was significantly high. In other words, Africans were imported to make up the demographic deficit on the plantations."
- "Community Outreach" Seminar on Planning Process for SANTIAGO +5, Global Afro-Latino and Caribbean Initiative, 4 February 2006.
- De La Torre, Miguel A. (2009). Hispanic American Religious Cultures. ABC-Clio. p. 386. ISBN 978-1-59884-139-8.
The ways of defining blackness range from characteristics of skin tones, hair textures, facial features...
- Whitten, Norman E.; Torres, Arlene, eds. (1998). Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean. Indiana University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-253-21194-1.
In still other instances, persons are counted in reference to equally ambiguous phenotypical variations, particularly skin color, facial features, or hair texture.
- Hernandez, Tanya Kateri (2012). Racial Subordination in Latin America. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-107-02486-1.
Given the larger numbers of persons of African and indigenous descent in Spanish America, the region developed its own form of eugenics with the concepts of blanqueamiento (whitening) ...blanqueamiento was meant to benefit the entire nation with a white image, and not just individual persons of African descent seeking access to the legal rights and privileges of colonial whites.
- Skidmore, Thomas E. (April 1992). "Fact and Myth: Discovering a Racial Problem in Brazil" (PDF). Working Paper. 173.
- Telles, Edward Eric (2004). Race in Another America: The Significance of Skin Color in Brazil. Princeton University Press. pp. 95–98. ISBN 978-0-691-11866-6.
- Telles, Edward E. (3 May 2002). "Racial Ambiguity Among the Brazilian Population" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies. California Center for Population Research. 25 (3): 415–441. doi:10.1080/01419870252932133. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2005.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2009. Retrieved 29 December 2011.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Telles 2004, p. 24
- "CIA World Factbook: Brazil". Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- V.F. Gonçalves, F. Prosdocimi, L. S. Santos, J. M. Ortega and S. D. J. Pena, "Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians", GMR, 2007, Vol. 12, No. 6.
- Phillips, Tom (25 August 2010). "Brazil's census offers recognition at last to descendants of runaway slaves". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Barrolle, Melvin Kadiri. "African 'Americans' in Brazil". New America Media. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "Slavery's legacies". The Economist. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Roland, Edna Maria Santos. "The Economics of Racism: People of African Descent in Brazil". Archived from the original on 14 June 2007.
- Tom Phillips, "Brazil census shows African-Brazilians in the majority for the first time", The Guardian, 17 November 2011. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- Charles Whitaker, "Blacks in Brazil: The Myth and the Reality", Ebony, February 1991.
- "Brazil Separates Into a World of Black and White". Los Angeles Times. 3 September 2006. Retrieved 6 May 2018.
- University of the Andes (Venezuela) (3 March 2011), Historia de Venezuela – Procedencia de los Esclavos Negros en Venezuela, retrieved 6 May 2018